Journal of Architectural and Engineering Research 2022-12-22T00:31:04+04:00 Manuk Barsegyan Open Journal Systems <p><em><strong>Journal of Architectural and Engineering Research</strong></em> is peer-reviewed, open-access e-journal, free of charge.</p> The Comparison Analysis of Development Length in Accordance with Armenian and Foreign Building Standards 2022-12-22T00:30:45+04:00 Hovhannes Avagyan Hayk Dadayan <p><span class="s13">The study of a </span><span class="s13">development length determination according to Armenian and foreign building standards is presented. For analysis implementation different concrete classes</span><span class="s13"> (B20, B25, B30)</span><span class="s13"> and rebar diameters</span><span class="s13"> (25mm, 28mm, 32mm)</span><span class="s13"> were </span><span class="s13">chosen. </span><span class="s13">Reinforcement bar class A500C </span><span class="s13">was taken.</span><span class="s13"> Two different cases were considered: in one case, the reinforcement is taken in tension, in the other case, in compression. The calculation results </span><span class="s13">were</span><span class="s13"> presented graphically using the "Wolfram Mathematica" software package</span><span class="s13">. The results are shown</span><span class="s13"> that in the cases of both tension and compression, the value of the anchorage length obtained by </span><span class="s13">Armenian building standards</span><span class="s13"> is 23.1% more than by </span><span class="s13">Russian codes</span><span class="s13"> received. In the case of tension, the value of the anchorage length obtained by </span><span class="s13">American codes</span><span class="s13"> is 16.7-20.8% more than the one obtained by the </span><span class="s13">Armenian building standards</span><span class="s13">.</span></p> 2022-12-22T00:00:00+04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Hovhannes Avagyan, Hayk Dadayan Challenges to Residential Quarter Reconstruction: The Case of the Center of Yerevan City 2022-12-22T00:30:47+04:00 Karen Azatyan Madlena Igitkhanyan Anush Ohanyan <p class="Abstract" style="line-height: normal;"><span lang="EN-GB">This paper examines the key challenges to the reconstruction of residential development in urban areas. It aims to conduct a comparative analysis of the reconstruction processes of residential quarters in Yerevan and in international practices and to identify certain principles that are appropriate for the further development of the process in Yerevan. The paper presents the features of the reconstruction processes that took place in the sphere of a residential development of the city of Yerevan. The study has been conducted on the reconstruction processes of various nature and content of residential quarters in past decades in a number of cities around the world, focusing on the analysis of topics that remain unexplored in the practice of Yerevan city. A comparative analysis of the findings and conclusions made in the framework of this paper allows us to reveal the strengths and weaknesses in the research and design works for the reconstruction of residential quarters in Yerevan already developed, as well as to develop principles for the choice of study directions, analysis methods, systematization and classification objects, which can be applied to local and international research on the given topic and in the design processes.</span></p> 2022-12-22T00:00:00+04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Karen Azatyan, Madlena Igitkhanyan, Anush Ohanyan Assessment of the Stress-Strain State of Strengthened Buildings in Seismic Regions Taking into Account Soil Dynamic Parameters 2022-12-22T00:31:04+04:00 Tigran Dadayan Elena Dumova-Jovanoska Lusine Karapetyan <p><em>The main objective of the article is to assess the stress-strain state of building structures under seismic action taking into account the dynamic characteristics of the soils. As well as an assessment of the effectiveness of strengthening method of masonry building based on the Time History </em><em>A</em><em>nalysis of the bearing capacity of structures.</em></p> <p><em>During the study a real existing masonry building is chosen. The building is modeled with the Lira-SAPR computer software with usage of the proposed strengthening method. Then, with the help of full-scale tests, the geophysical characteristics have been determined, as well as the prevailing period of the soil. Based on the existing engineering-geological and obtained by us geophysical data, the synthetic accelerogram corresponding to the masonry building soils have been chosen. The Time History Analysis of the building structures under seismic action have been carried out using previously obtained accelerogram, where the results have been compared with the standard Response Spectral method. And, finally, based on a comparison of various methods for assessing the bearing capacity, the effectiveness of building strengthening has been evaluated. The results of this study can assist the structural engineer in making better decisions for future design decisions.</em></p> 2022-12-22T00:00:00+04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Tigran Dadayan, Elena Dumova-Jovanoska, Lusine Karapetyan Scientific and Experimental Substantiation for the Production of Fireproof and Heat-Resistant Materials from Magnesia-Silicate Rocks 2022-12-22T00:30:43+04:00 Amalya Karapetyan Maria Badalyan <p><em>This article touches upon the technologies for fireproof and heat-resistant concrete production based on local raw materials: magnesia-silicate rock from the Sevan deposit, which can be used in thermal units to replace small-piece masonry bricks and figured elements. Raw materials were studied, the magnesia modulus was determined, chemical, radiographic, thermographic, and dilatometric analyses were carried out. To reduce volumetric shrinkage and porosity and convert clinoenstatite into forsterite, the rock was pre-baked in the presence of . The proposed technology is low-power and urgent, especially in the energy crisis. Based on the mentioned rocks, multifunctional, cost-effective, fireproof, and heat-resistant forsterite materials have been developed, compressive strength ranges from 40 ... 60 MPa, the melting point of 1600°C, and heat resistance - 5 thermal cycles.</em></p> 2022-12-22T00:00:00+04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Amalya Karapetyan, Maria Badalyan Holy All Savior Ghazanchetsots Church in Shushi and "Protection" of Cultural Heritage in Azerbaijan 2022-12-22T00:30:52+04:00 Lyuba Kirakosyan <p>The article presents the circumstances of the founding of the Holy All Savior Ghazanchetsots Church in the city of Shushi, its plan, spatial composition and decorations. The essence of the policy of the Azerbaijani authorities to change the ownership of the monument, its rejection from the Armenians, as well as the manifestation of vandalism against the church is revealed. The study was carried out by retrieving archival materials; discussing and conducting own original research.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-22T00:00:00+04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Lyuba Kirakosyan Monitoring of Weak and Moderate Earthquakes Using GNSS Technologies 2022-12-22T00:31:01+04:00 Anush Margaryan Suren Tovmasyan Vahagn Muradyan Larisa Manukyan <p><em>The geodetic monitoring results of the earthquake in the seismically active area at the Republic of Armenia using GNSS technologies are presented in this article. The necessity of using geodetic tools-equipment, in particular satellite technologies, in the process of seismic studies is substantiated, proving the fact of the validity and reliability of the data. The monitoring results of the horizontal-vertical shifts’ coordinates of the permanent reference stations affected by the earthquake in Armenia on February 13, 2021 at different time intervals (5 days before the earthquake, 2 hours and 10 minutes before and after, as well as at the moment of the earthquake) were analyzed and the graph analyzes were given.</em></p> 2022-12-22T00:00:00+04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Anush Margaryan, Suren Tovmasyan, Vahagn Muradyan, Larisa Manukyan Study of Linear Deformation Changes in Heavy Concrete Based on Modified Portland Cement 2022-12-22T00:30:54+04:00 Armine Meymaryan Nikolay Chilingaryan <p><em>The investigation results revealed how modified standard Portland cement of grade 42,5 (M400) with 10% of the expanding additive changes &nbsp;the deformation characteristics of heavy concrete.</em> <em>Heavy concrete of class B 22.5 (M300) with</em><em> a</em><em> different water-cement ratio (</em><em>slump </em><em>3 cm and 5 cm) was selected as the object of study, from which cubic specimens of side 10 cm were prepared.</em> <em>The impact of modified cement on concrete linear deformations is determined at the ages of 1, 3, and 28 days under normal setting conditions, and changes in the sizes of the same specimens are checked for three months under air-drying conditions.</em> <em>The study confirmed that the most effective impact of modified cement, as in the case of construction mortars, is also observed in 3–7 days </em><em>&nbsp;of curing. It was found that the effect of modified cement is increased with the increase in the water-cement ratio, and a relatively low percentage of expansion through the low water-cement ratio is explained by the certain rigidity of the concrete internal structure.</em></p> 2022-12-22T00:00:00+04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Armine Meymaryan, Nikolay Chilingaryan Study of Energy Dissipation in a Two-Phase Soil System 2022-12-22T00:30:40+04:00 Tigran Petrosyan Arestak Sarukhanyan <p>The dependence of energy dissipation coefficient on filtration properties and on creep characteristics of soil skeleton is examined. The study was carried out on the basis of the general solution of the joint task of creep and consolidation theory for a two-phase soil system obtained on the basis of the generalized model of bulk forces, taking into account the interaction of soil phases, changes over time in the general stress state at any point of the soil and additional pressures in pore water, and incomplete transfer of external pressure to the pore water. Interactions between phases are taken into account in the solution of the one-dimensional joint task of the theory of creep and consolidation, and the creep kernel is taken in the form of an exponential function. The formula for the deformation of two-phase soils is presented as the sum of two syllables due to primary and secondary consolidation of the soil. The strain formula uses experimentally obtained values of filtration characteristics and creep parameters of the soil skeleton. Using the formulas obtained, hysteresis loops under sinusoidal stress changes can be plotted and the energy expended per deformation cycle and the dissipation coefficient for two-phase soil can be obtained.</p> 2022-12-22T00:00:00+04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Tigran Petrosyan, Arestak Sarukhanyan Hydraulic Pressure Management of Yerevan City’s Water Supply Systems 2022-12-22T00:30:38+04:00 Aram Sahakyan <p><em>The system’s excessive pressure management after zoning is essential for improving the existing water supply operation efficiency. Our original research proves that pressure control reduces the leaks in the water supply network, increasing the reliability level of the internal and external networks and saving energy consumed in pumping systems.</em> <em>In recent years, 243 pressure regulating valves (PRV) have been installed in the 97 zones of the expanded water supply network in the Yerevan city (the difference between the levels in the city reaches up to 500 meters) for pressure control in</em> <em>complex terrain conditions.</em></p> 2022-12-22T00:00:00+04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Aram Sahakyan Some Constructive Methods for Improving the Operation of Horizontal Settling Tanks 2022-12-22T00:30:58+04:00 Varuzhan Shamyan Armenuhi Minasyan <p><em>The main constructive methods for improving the process of settling suspended solids and separating sediment in horizontal settling tanks are considered. Methods for calculating these structures are analyzed both in general terms and for individual characteristic (supply, settling and drain) areas of wastewater flow. Those constructive proposals that can more significantly improve the efficiency of horizontal settling tanks are noted. The proposed modification relates to the part built into the thin-layer sedimentation tank - the flocculator, which ensures the most uniform and laminar flow in the structure.</em></p> 2022-12-22T00:00:00+04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Varuzhan Shamyan, Armenuhi Minasyan A Complex Organomineral Admixture For Cement Saving 2022-12-22T00:30:36+04:00 Elena Shlyakhova Inna Egorochkina <p><em>The aim of the research is to prepare a composition of a complex organomineral admixture based on industrial waste for cement saving, to experimentally establish the optimum crushing degree of an ash-and-slag waste composition and to estimate the ratio between mineral and organic components of the complex admixture, ensuring the possibility of reducing cement consumption without loss of concrete strength. As a mineral component of the complex admixture the wastes from thermoelectric power</em> <em>stations were used, </em><em>representing </em>&nbsp;<em>by an ash-and-slag waste composition crushed to a fine powder condition. Optimization of the complex admixture is carried out&nbsp; using mathematical methods of the theory of planning experiments.</em></p> <p><em>As a result of this research a quadratic polynomial model of influence of crushing fineness of ash-and-slag wastes and cement consumption on concrete strength has been obtained. It is established, that depending on the degree of crushing of ash-and-slag waste composition within values of specific surface of received powder from 2400 to 4000 cm<sup>2</sup>/g it is possible to reduce cement consumption by 8-18 % without loss in strength of concrete. The introduction of complex organomineral admixtures into concrete is very effective as it saves cement. However, special studies are required in each case. The compositions of the new complex admixtures are tested on the basis of traditional raw materials, and economic efficiency in saving cement is established. It is proposed to use the methodology of mathematical modelling of the technological complex system under study, presented in this article.</em></p> 2022-12-22T00:00:00+04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Elena Shlyakhova, Inna Egorochkina The Formation оf Regional Identity Involves а Variety оf Different Power Relations 2022-12-22T00:30:50+04:00 Wiwik Dwi Susanti Muchlisiniyati Safeyah Fairuz Mutia <p><em>Currently, Sedati Regency's coastal region has undergone an identity shift. The region, which was once renowned as a representation of seaside culture, has been changed into a new official residential community. the beginning of new operations in 2018, such as the massive construction of formal settlement sites. In an effort to establish a new identity, each of these operations maintained control over coastal regions. By employing power relations analysis approaches, such as archeology and genealogy, to uncover local behavior, which in turn can establish regional identity, qualitative research techniques and data analysis can be used. According to Focault's analysis, the identity of the coastal region is changing, and the local Javanese and Madurese cultures are having an impact on the power dynamics in informal dwellings. Meanwhile, because the majority of inhabitants are diverse immigrants, power dynamics in formal housing are shaped by urban culture.</em></p> 2022-12-22T00:00:00+04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Wiwik Dwi Susanti, Muchlisiniyati Safeyah, Fairuz Mutia Methods For The Formation Of Energy-Efficient Architecture Of Social Objects In World Design Practice 2022-12-22T00:30:33+04:00 Almagul Toishiyeva Emma Harutyunyan Yelena Khvan Rakhima Chekaeva <p><em>Today, people are increasingly drifting away from nature in an age of accelerated lives and information technology. Only the natural environment can create comfortable, ecological conditions for human life. It has become evident that the biological component of the domain has been noticeably reduced in the big cities, and the appeal to the global architectural community of the ecological and aesthetic aspects of design and construction, which contribute to the comfortable and sustainable development of urban space, has become particularly relevant over the past decades. In a big city, architecture is omnipresent. Hence, the architectural-spatial environment should be solved as much as possible in the context of the natural environment, embodying not only the material needs of a person but also spiritual ones. The current unfavorable environmental, energy, and economic situation in the world requires new methods for designing and building the architecture of new and reconstructed old buildings. The article discusses the issues surrounding the formation of modern energy-efficient architecture in the context of its relationship with the natural environment through the use of modern design solutions. The article is based on surveys of social facilities made by the authors from 2017 to 2021 in Eurasian and European cities. The article analyzes a new mechanism of architectural formation based on the shape formation of an architectural object, the content of the architectural shape, the aesthetics of perception, and the organization of eco-space.</em></p> 2022-12-22T00:00:00+04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Almagul Toishiyeva, Emma Harutyunyan, Yelena Khvan, Rakhima Chekaeva Separate Principles of Spatial Planning in the Border Regions on the Example of Meghri Community 2022-12-22T00:30:30+04:00 Sargis Tovmasyan Hayk Zirakyan <p><em>The paper aims to apply such principles of territorial planning in border areas and regions under the threat of war, which will allow to meet the primary needs of the population under relatively peaceful conditions and, in emergency situations, will reduce the vulnerability of territories and populations. To solve this problem, the issues specific to the border regions and principles of their classification were studied, which were found both in international documents and in scientific publications. In the example of the Meghri community of Syunik Marz, RA, such factors directly related to spatial planning, such as geographical location; natural, economic, and cultural resources; territorial placement of settlements; population; and infrastructure, were investigated. To solve the problem of access to public services, the infrastructures for providing the primary needs of the population were selected and categorized according to access levels. The study's findings led to recommendations for using these spatial planning concepts, which will guarantee that all the residents in the community's settlements have access to services.</em></p> 2022-12-22T00:00:00+04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sargis Tovmasyan, Hayk Zirakyan