Journal of Architectural and Engineering Research 2024-02-27T20:15:26+04:00 Manuk Barsegyan Open Journal Systems <p><em><strong>Journal of Architectural and Engineering Research</strong></em> is peer-reviewed, open-access e-journal, free of charge.</p> Development of Technology and a Convertеr for Neutralizing Greenhouse Gases Emitted from Automobiles 2024-01-25T22:02:05+04:00 Yeghiazar Vardanyan Valerik Harutyunyan Vladimir Koichev Karapet Mosikyan <p><em>The article touches upon the issues of global warming associated with carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) emissions into the atmosphere from vehicle internal combustion engines (ICE). To neutralize existing greenhouse gases emitted by ICE, in particular CO<sub>2</sub>, the interaction of the latter with various chemicals has been studied. The dynamics of exhaust gas emissions from ICE cylinders were observed. The experimental research was conducted to develop a greenhouse gas neutralization technology. Carbon dioxide neutralization converter with three neutralization batteries and a homogenization device is presented. This converter can guarantee CO<sub>2</sub> neutralization of up to 92%. </em><em>The formation of CO<sub>2</sub> in the cylinders of modern petrol engines is due to the final combustion of the air-petrol fuel mixture. The combustion of the latter in the cylinder can be heterogeneous and diffusive. In addition, CO<sub>2</sub> is generated in large quantities during diffusion combustion. </em><em>The most effective method of diffusive combustion was chosen by the constructors of modern ICE, which is the formation of an artificial turbulent gas-dynamic condition for the fuel mixture due to the increase in the temperature of the air adsorbed in the cylinder, which ensures the engine's thermal energy efficiency coefficient of up to 35%.</em> <em>The CO<sub>2</sub> volume in the exhaust gases of such engines reaches up to 16%. </em><em>Thus, considering the perfection of modern ICE design for providing a high-efficiency reaction for the hydrocarbon oxidation in the fuel mixture in the combustion chamber, it becomes apparent that t</em><em>he presence of about 16% CO<sub>2</sub> in the fractional composition of emitted dissolved gases is a serious problem in terms of increasing the volume of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere</em>. <em>Therefore, the goal of this article is to develop a reduction technology.</em></p> 2024-01-25T00:00:00+04:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Valerik Harutyunyan, Yeghiazar Vardanyan, Vladimir Koichev, Karapet Mosikyan Trachyandesite: A Resource for the Future of Old Buildings 2024-02-13T21:22:21+04:00 Gwenn Gayet-Kerguiduff <p><em>The aim of this action research project is to (re)define and (re)get to know the material trachyandesite. A magmatic rock that has contributed to the identity of the Massif Central region, through the construction of towns since the 15th century, its exploitation has accelerated with industrial growth. Its presence grew and its uses spread throughout France. If this stone confers a specific and visual identity, it is today one of the components of the built heritage of a French region, at one with the landscape because it is at its heart. Understanding the materiality of this stone and its many characteristics is a key factor in the restoration of old buildings. Could knowledge of the qualities of trachyandesite (refractory stone, high pyroscopic resistance) as a local, low-carbon-emission material enhance the value of constructions and/or restorations that could be described as geosourced?</em></p> 2024-02-13T00:00:00+04:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Gwenn Gayet-Kerguiduff Preventive Conservation of Cultural Heritage in Armenia: A Preliminary Study of the Internal Surfaces in the Geghard Monastery 2024-02-27T20:15:26+04:00 Matilde Veneziano Emma Harutyunyan Nanar Kalantaryan Guido Driussi Zeno Morabito Elisabetta Zendri <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong><em>In the Armenian context, most of the architectural heritages are monasteries often subjected to geological hazards and degradation of materials due to the environmental conditions. The aim of this study, in collaboration between the Ca’ Foscari University of Venice and the National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia, was a preliminary analysis of the state of conservation of the UNESCO heritage site of Geghard Monastery. Specifically, this research reports the results of the multi-disciplinary investigation on the internal stone surfaces of the caved "Proshian family room" belonging to the XIII century. In situ analyses that consisted of a careful visual survey of the stone surface, environmental monitoring, water absorption and ultrasonic measurements were conducted.The collected data constitute a starting point for monitoring the degradation phenomena, which is helpful for future preventive conservative interventions.</em></p> 2024-02-27T00:00:00+04:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Matilde Veneziano, Emma Harutyunyan, Nanar Kalantaryan, Guido Driussi, Zeno Morabito, Elisabetta Zendri Change of Axial Forces in Layered Rubber–Steel Base Isolators of High-Rise Buildings at Earthquake Impact 2023-11-07T19:41:03+04:00 Tigran Dadayan Lusine Karapetyan <p><em>Seismic isolation technology makes buildings more capable of withstanding earthquakes, protecting them from major damages or collapse. The same methods of analyses are not suitable for all types of buildings. The isolation system used Armenia, unlike foreign countries ones, cannot take any tension forces since the system doesn't have structural connections to superstructure and substructure of a building. The consequence of this fact can be the occurrence of additional stresses after the redistribution of axial forces in rubber base isolations in high-rise buildings during a seismic action. The stress-strain state analyses of rubber base seismic isolation systems in reinforced concrete dual frame-wall buildings with application of a finite element method carried out in the manuscript. An increase of the stresses during seismic action is discussed and investigated using both Fast-nonlinear time history analysis (FNTHA) and Direct-integration nonlinear time-history analysis (DINTHA). Analysis of the results of the study shows that the axial forces after their redistribution during horizontal earthquake loads in most seismic isolators of high-rise building do not exceed 8%, but for some isolators this difference varies within the range of 12-18%. Taking into account the vertical component, the difference does not exceed 20%, with the exception of three isolators, where it can reach up to 23%. An average increase of the compressive axial forces in the seismic isolation bearing systems of the tall building as a result of redistribution can be taken about 10%. In this case, the displacements and the axial forces of the seismic isolators during analysis of their bearing capacity must be considered simultaneously, but not separately from each other.</em></p> 2024-03-03T00:00:00+04:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Tigran Dadayan, Lusine Karapetyan Determining Military Resistance in the Republic of Armenia's Border Settlements Within Spatial Planning 2023-12-14T22:48:22+04:00 Anna Vardanyan <p><em><strong>Due</strong> to the military operations conducted by the opponent during and after the 2020 Artsakh war, as well as potential future risks and threats, the Republic of Armenia faces the challenge of ensuring the secure livelihoods of border settlements and implementing programs aimed at territorial development. Therefore, raising the issues regarding the resistance of these settlements to possible military operations is of strategic importance and demands immediate attention. </em></p> <p><em>The research examines normative and technical documents adopted from both international and local experiences to mitigate the impact of military attacks. It delves into the potential for reducing casualties and material damage by organizing the spatial environment of settlements. Furthermore, it emphasizes the necessity of defining new terminology and formulating key assessment criteria. The proposed solutions can be the basis for proposing a new scientific theory in architecture and contributing to the development of new resistance solutions in architecture along with military technologies.</em></p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+04:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Anna Vardanyan